What is AngularJS?

AngularJS is an open-source JavaScript framework. It extends HTML’s syntax to express your application’s components clearly and define AngularJS functions, for example:

<ul>
  <li ng-repeat="show in shows">
    <a href={{show.link}} target="_blank">{{show.name}}</a>
  </li>
</ul>

AngularJS automatically synchronizes data from your UI (view) with your JavaScript objects (model) through 2-way data binding. It also helps with server-side communication, taming async callbacks with promises and deferreds; and make client-side navigation and deeplinking with hashbang urls or HTML5 pushState a piece of cake.

Rails 3 and AngularJS – a small tutorial

First of all, create a new Rails app, and change your html-tag to <html ng-app>. To setup AngularJS link to the newest version (see angularjs.org) and include your app/assets/javascripts/application.js after that in your layout file (eg: application.html.erb):

<script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.0.3/angular.min.js"></script>
<%= javascript_include_tag "application" -%>

You have to intercept html requests to create a single-page application. If you have your root (eg: home#index) you can easily put a before_filter in your ApplicationController to render ‘home/index‘ or even another layout every time the request format is HTML.

class HomeController < ApplicationController
  respond_to :html
  def index
  end
end
 
class ApplicationController < ActionController::Base
  protect_from_forgery
  before_filter :intercept_html_requests
 
  private
  def intercept_html_requests
    render('home/index') if request.format == Mime::HTML
  end
end

I recommend to read the conceptual overview. Understand Angular’s vocabulary and how all the Angular components work together. Watch the AngularJS Tutorial (with node.js). It explains every major AngularJS feature and also gives a live demo.

Create a new JS File (or use your application.js) and try creating your first AngularJS controller.

JS:

function ShowsCtrl($scope) {
  $scope.shows = [{
    id: 1,
    name:'Big Bang Theory',
    seen:true
  }, {
    id: 2,
    name:'Breaking Bad',
    seen:false
  }];
}

The data is now hardcoded in the controller, later $scope.shows will be defined with data from an external API. (you can also use rails routes and respond_to :json if you use Rails Models)

HTML:

<div ng-controller="ShowsCtrl">
  <ul>
    <li ng-repeat="show in shows">
      {{show.name}}
    </li>
  </ul>
</div>

As you see, you can define one part of your site to use AngularJS – and you can make many separated controllers.

To load real data by ajax call, you need to add $http in your controller function:

function ShowsCtrl($scope, $http) {
  $http.get('/shows.json').success(function(data) {
    $scope.shows = data;
  });
}

Add a module

For example, you would like to add localstorage functionality to your angular app. First look for an angular module, before you write one by yourself ;) –> github.com/grevory/angular-local-storage

Include the external JS file in your app/assets/javascripts folder – you can see this line on the top of the file:

var angularLocalStorage = angular.module('LocalStorageModule', []);

Now it’s time to define your own app (appname) and add this module (LocalStorageModule). You can add as many modules as you like. In ‘LocalStorageModule’ a service called ‘localStorageService’ is defined. To use this service you have to include it in your controller initialization next to $scope and $http.

angular.module('appname', ['LocalStorageModule']);

var ShowsCtrl = ['$scope', '$http', 'localStorageService', function($scope, $http, localStorageService) {
  localStorageService.add('ids', [1,2]);
}

Last step: update the html-tag and define the app name. Now you can use ‘localStorageService’ in your controller.

<html ng-app="appname">

Code examples

Below are some code snippets with examples how to use it (in comments above every function).

/**
 * Gets number of seen shows.
 * @example
 *   {{seenCount()}} of {{shows.length}} seen
 * @return {Integer} seen count
 */
$scope.seenCount = function() {
  var count = 0;
  angular.forEach($scope.shows, function(show) {
    count += show.seen ? 1 : 0;
  });
  return count;
};
 
/**
 * Gets called everytime searchId is changed ($watch).
 * If the user chooses a search result the searchId is set and
 * the function adds this show if not null.
 */
$scope.searchId = null;
$scope.$watch('searchId', function() {
  if( $scope.searchId !== null ) {
    $scope.addShow($scope.searchId);
  }
});
 
/**
 * Adds show to $scope.shows if not already in array.
 * @param {Integer} id show
 */
$scope.addShow = function(id) {
  var show = $scope.loadShow(id);
  if($.inArray(show, $scope.shows) !== -1) { return; }
 
  $scope.shows.push(show);
};
 
/**
 * Toggles seen of a show
 * @example
 *   <li ng-click="toggleSeen(show)"></li>
 * @param  {Object} show
 */
$scope.toggleSeen = function(show) {
  show.seen = show.seen ? false : true;
};
 
/**
 * Removes all special chars, all except numbers, letters and spaces.
 * "Shameless (US)" => "Shameless US"
 * @example
 *   <a href="https://www.google.com/search?q={{parseName(show.name)}}">
 * @param  {String} name tvshow
 * @return {String}      name without special chars
 */
$scope.parseName = function(name) {
  return name.replace(/[^ a-zA-Z0-9]/g,'');
};

Deployment

There can be a minification problem if you use Rails with AngularJS (the Rails Asset Pipeline minifies all asset files). I got an error when deploying on heroku:

Uncaught Error: Unknown provider: e

before I did this: (not wrong, but leads to an error!)

app.controller("ShowsCtrl", function($scope, $http) { }

According to AngularJS tutorial (docs.angularjs.org/tutorial/step_05) you can change this line to the following to prevent minification issues:

var ShowsCtrl = ['$scope', '$http', function($scope, $http) { }

I hope I’ve helped some of you to get started with AngularJS and Rails.

Happy coding!